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Bixby Developer Center

Guides

Glossary

This glossary covers the main technical concepts discussed in the Developer Guide.

A

Action
An abstract definition of some operation that may be performed. It can be a search (such as FindRestaurants) or perform an operation (such as BookHotel), and contains action inputs and one action output. For more information, see Modeling Actions.

Action input
A description of an input of an action; in particular, it includes a name, a concept, and a cardinality. For more information, see the input reference page.

Action output
A description of the output of an action; in particular, it includes a concept and a cardinality. For more information, see the output reference page.

Action type
A description of how an action can be used, including whether it has side effects and whether its effects on the world are atomic or continuing. For more information, see the type reference page.

Advice
The output of a strategy. For more information, see Selection Learning.

Aligned text
A format for NL training that includes the utterance as well as embedded annotations (or labels). It is used internally by the platform to represent training provided by developers. For more information, see Training and Vocabulary.

Authorization
A user can provide authorization for a function to access an external provider via a prompt. For more information, see Authorizing Access With OAuth.

B

Binding
When extending a structure concept, a particular property can be bound to a specific value (for example,Restaurant can extend a Business and bind the business category property to be "Restaurant"). For more information, see Relationships Between Concepts.

Binding path
A dot-delimited set of property names indicating a property or any depth of sub-property of a structure concept (for example, country.name on a geo.LevelOneDivision or review.rating.score on a restaurant.Restaurant). For more information, see Structure Concepts

C

Capsule
A unit of contribution in the Marketplace, consisting of a group of related functionality. It also delineates permissions among developers. For more information, see the Overview.

Cardinality
In many cases in modeling (such as describing action inputs), it is necessary to describe how many values may appear. Cardinality is described in terms of "min cardinality" (i.e. optional or required) and "max cardinality" (i.e. one or many). For more information, see Cardinality.

Contribution
Modifications or additions by developers to code or data that affect operation of the system, including models, functions, dialog, layout, and NL vocabulary and training.

Confirmation prompt
A prompt that asks the user to confirm something, such as making a purchase. For more information, see Confirmation Prompts.

Conversational interface
A user interface in which the user exchanges queries and responses with the platform in a dialog, until an answer is reached. Also known as the conversation model. For more information, see Designing Your Capsule.

Conversation model
See conversational interface.

Concept
An abstract definition of a class of possible values. Anything that a user may refer to or that a developer wishes to model can be a concept. Concepts include primitive concepts and structure concepts. For more information, see Modeling Concepts.

Concept value
A data value that is an instance of a concept.

Core models
See library models.

D

DateTime
A point in time, consisting of a date and a time. Dates and times can also be used in isolation. For more information, see DateTime (viv.time).

Delight nuggets
Developer-provided customizations of a user interaction with the platform that help the user in surprising or unexpected ways that differ from normal execution dialog and prompts. For more information, see Implementing Delight Nuggets.

Developer
A person or organization that can make modifications to capsules.

Dialog
A description of the responses the platform can make in response to a user, or while fulfilling a request. For more information, see Refining Dialog.

Dialog event
A dialog response triggered before, during, or after execution. Examples include progress notification, action confirmation, prompts for more information, error messages, and result messages. For more information, see Dialog Events.

Dialog fragment
A composable template for dialog, relevant to a particular mode. The modes are Action, Concept, Input, Sort, and Value. For more information, see Dialog Fragments.

E

Effect
An operation that changes the plan in response to conditions encountered during execution. Effects include replacing or dropping an input, prompting a user for new input, or halting plan execution. For more information, see Effects.

Enum concept
A structure concept that has a fixed set of values. (For example, the viv.measurement.LengthUnit concept might have values Inch, Foot, Millimeter, etc.) For more information, see the enum reference page.

Equivalence definition
A description of the conditions for when two concept values might or might not be the same. Equivalence can return "true," "false," or "uncertain". For more information, see Merging and Equivalence.

Expression Language (EL)
A simple language for expressions used in a few places such as dialogs, strategies and layouts. For more information, see Using Expression Language.

Execution
The process of running a plan to produce a result, and the associated presentation to the user. For more information, see Planner Overview.

Execution graph
The resulting directed graph that outlines the plan Bixby used during execution. For more information, see The Execution Graph.

Extension
A relationship between two concepts, where a child concept may extend a parent concept by adding additional properties. Represents an single-directional is-a relationship (for example, a restaurant is a business). For more information, see Extension.

F

Function
An implementation of an action (typically defined in JavaScript). For more information, see Implementing JavaScript Actions.

Function precondition
An optional expression indicating to the platform preconditions for a function's execution. For more information, see Function Preconditions.

G

Goal
See goal signal.

Goal signal
A signal in a plan intent indicating the result type of the plan. For more information, see the goal reference page.

I

Instantiation strategy
A strategy that suggests default values for a concept for an instantiation prompt. For more information, see Default Values.

Interpretation
The process of converting an utterance to an intent.

Intent
A formal expression of what a user's expressed intent. It is made of signals. For more information, see the intent reference page.

L

Layout
A description of the way content or forms are presented to the user within a larger views file. For more information, see layouts.

Library capsules
Capsules that you can import into your capsule that provide essential models and actions, such as geography and time. For more information, see Library Capsules.

Library models
Certain essential capsules that are provided by the platform through library capsules, including support for geographic models and data, date and time, payments, and credentials. Also known as code models.

Locale
A specific location defined by an ISO 3166 code, made up of a two letter language code and an option two letter country code. For example, en-US is the US English locale, en-GB is the Great Britain English locale, en is the English locale that covers all english-speaking countries, and ko-KR is the South Korean Korean locale. The base subfolder in your resources directory covers all targeted locales. For more information, Organizing Your Capsule Resources.

M

Match pattern
A pattern that matches against a subset of the plan graph. It is expressed as a labeled sub-graph of the plan graph, written as a tree where the root is the current point of execution.

Marketplace
The Marketplace is the multi-device, multi-locale location, where all your capsule submissions can be published to all the Bixby targets defined in your capsule.bxb file. For more information, see Working With the Marketplace.

Model
A set of abstract definitions of concepts and actions. For more information, see Introduction to Modeling.

Modeling
The definition of concepts and actions to enable the platform to solve a use case. Good modeling takes into account the planning and execution process.

Moment
The response from Bixby within a conversation model that is made up of dialog, views, and follow-ups. There are three types of Moments: input moment, confirmation moment, and result moment. For more information, see Moments.

N

Node
The actions models and concept models within the larger execution graph created by Bixby to fulfill a goal. For more information, see Planer Overview.

NL training
Examples contributed by developers to that teach the platform's machine learning system how to map utterances to intents. Internally, NL training is represented as aligned text, though more commonly it is edited via the training tool.

Natural Language (NL)
Anything a human might type or say when interacting with Bixby. It need not be grammatical, and can be of any language.

Node ID
A unique identifier for a node. The node ID of a concept or action is typically of the form air.Flight or restaurant.FindRestaurants (where, in the first example, air is a capsule name, and Flight is a name for the concept, and similarly for the action). Other nodes might have internal or generated IDs that reflect their function in a graph.

O

Outer goal
A goal signal that labels the entire utterance, and is not attached to a particular word. For more information, see the @context reference page.

Overriding
When extending a concept, it is possible to override a property with modifications. For example a Restaurant concept may override a Business concept's name property to be a RestaurantName. For more information, see the override reference page.

Owner
An entity that has ownership of concept values, including both capsules and users.

P

Permissions
The ability to access to a specific piece of sensitive data, such as a credit card number or password. For more information, see Granting Capsule Permissions.

Platform
The core software of Bixby, excluding contributions from developers, including systems that support interpretation, planning, and execution, as well as library models.

Plan
A set of steps (technically, a graph) that might be executed to yield a goal. For more information, see Customizing the Plan.

Planner
The component of the platform that produces a plan based on an intent. For more information, see Planner Overview.

Planning
The process of producing plans from intents.

Plan graph
The graph that describes a plan, consisting of nodes corresponding to nodes and edges indicating relationships, such as inputs, outputs, projections, and other operations.

Primitive concept
One of the primitive data types, such as numbers or string names. For more information, see Primitive Concepts.

Prompt
An interruption in execution to confirm with the user, or to elicit a value or selection. For more information, see Managing Prompts.

Property
A field within a structure concept. Represents a "has-a" relationship between the structure concept and the property's concept. For more information, see Properties.

Provider
An entity or organization that provides data or services to the platform. For example one provider might be a weather data feed; another might be a restaurant booking API.

R

Recovery goal
A type of intermediary goal for which a prompt is prompting. When Bixby fails to reach the original goal and has to prompt the user, that response is used to reach the recovery goal, which in turn helps Bixby complete the original goal. For more information, see Managing Prompts.

Request
An inquiry by the user to Bixby. For more information, see Requests.

Result
A concept value that is the output of a function.

Route signal
A signal in a plan intent indicating a concept or action that is a way-point in the plan. For more information, see Route Signals.

S

Selection strategy
A way to offer advice about which values of a selection prompt are good and which ones are not. For more information, see Selection Strategies.

Selection prompt
A prompt that asks the user to make a selection. For more information, see Selection Prompts.

Service
A service used by function implementations, such as a REST or SOAP web service. For more information, see Calling Web Services.

Side effects
When an action changes things in the world, such as modifying things remote service, or performing an action in the "real world," we say it has side effects. For more information, see Transactional Workflows.

Signal
A part of an intent representing a node and the role it is expected to play in the desired plan (goal, route, reference, subplan, etc.). For more information, see the intent reference page.

Strategy
A suggested approach for handling execution flow in a particular situation, such as an instantiation strategy or selection strategy. For more information, see Personalization and Learning.

Structure concept
A concept that, like a record, holds multiple properties, each itself corresponding to another concept. For more information, see Structure Concepts.

Subplan signal
A signal that indicates a recursive subplan. For more information, see the subplan reference page.

Symbol
Any string value, when used to define a primitive enum concept. For more information, see the enum reference page.

T

Target
A device and locale collection of capsules. For example, bixby-mobile-ko-KR is the Target for all capsules for mobile devices in Korean. For more information, see Set Device and Locale Targets.

Training
Referring to the sum total of all NL contributions for a capsule. For example, you could say “The training for the Uber capsule is in great shape”. But you shouldn't say “The trainings for the Uber capsule are in great shape”. See also NL Training. For more information, see Introduction for Training for Natural Language.

Training example
An individual unit of training for a capsule. A set of those units would then be referred to as training examples and should never be called "trainings." You don't create "a training" to add to a capsule's "trainings"; rather, you contribute "training examples." Alternatively, you could call them training entries. For more information, Creating Training Examples Using the Training Tool.

U

User
An end-user of the entire system.

Utterance
A natural language request made actually or potentially made by user.

V

Value
See concept value.

Value prompt
A prompt that asks users to provide a value. For more information, see Managing Prompts.

Value signal
A signal in a plan intent indicating a concept value. For more information, see the value reference page

View
Renders and displays the content of a Moment. For more information, see Building Views (UI).

Vocabulary
Words or phrases contributed to a particular node, to allow NL intent interpretation to recognize when that node is referred to. For more information, see Extending with Vocabulary.